# The network layer¶

The main objective of the network layer is to allow hosts, connected to different networks, to exchange information through intermediate systems called router. The unit of information in the network layer is called a packet.

Before explaining the network layer in detail, it is useful to begin by analyzing the service provided by the datalink layer. There are many variants of the datalink layer. Some provide a connection-oriented service while others provide a connectionless service. In this section, we focus on connectionless datalink layer services as they are the most widely used. Using a connection-oriented datalink layer causes some problems that are beyond the scope of this chapter. See RFC 3819 for a discussion on this topic.

There are three main types of datalink layers. The simplest datalink layer is when there are only two communicating systems that are directly connected through the physical layer. Such a datalink layer is used when there is a point-to-point link between the two communicating systems. The two systems can be hosts or routers. PPP, defined in RFC 1661, is an example of such a point-to-point datalink layer. Datalink layers exchange frames and a datalink frame sent by a datalink layer entity on the left is transmitted through the physical layer, so that it can reach the datalink layer entity on the right. Point-to-point datalink layers can either provide an unreliable service (frames can be corrupted or lost) or a reliable service (in this case, the datalink layer includes retransmission mechanisms similar to the ones used in the transport layer). The unreliable service is frequently used above physical layers (e.g. optical fiber, twisted pairs) having a low bit error ratio while reliability mechanisms are often used in wireless networks to recover locally from transmission errors.

The second type of datalink layer is the one used in Local Area Networks (LAN). Conceptually, a LAN is a set of communicating devices such that any two devices can directly exchange frames through the datalink layer. Both hosts and routers can be connected to a LAN. Some LANs only connect a few devices, but there are LANs that can connect hundreds or even thousands of devices.

In the next chapter, we describe the organization and the operation of Local Area Networks. An important difference between the point-to-point datalink layers and the datalink layers used in LANs is that in a LAN, each communicating device is identified by a unique datalink layer address. This address is usually embedded in the hardware of the device and different types of LANs use different types of datalink layer addresses. Most LANs use 48-bits long addresses that are usually called MAC addresses. A communicating device attached to a LAN can send a datalink frame to any other communicating device that is attached to the same LAN. Most LANs also support special broadcast and multicast datalink layer addresses. A frame sent to the broadcast address of the LAN is delivered to all communicating devices that are attached to the LAN. The multicast addresses are used to identify groups of communicating devices. When a frame is sent towards a multicast datalink layer address, it is delivered by the LAN to all communicating devices that belong to the corresponding group.

The third type of datalink layers are used in Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (NBMA) networks. These networks are used to interconnect devices like a LAN. All devices attached to an NBMA network are identified by a unique datalink layer address. However, and this is the main difference between an NBMA network and a traditional LAN, the NBMA service only supports unicast. The datalink layer service provided by an NBMA network supports neither broadcast nor multicast.

Unfortunately no datalink layer is able to send frames of unlimited size. Each datalink layer is characterized by a maximum frame size. There are more than a dozen different datalink layers and unfortunately most of them use a different maximum frame size. The network layer must cope with the heterogeneity of the datalink layer.

## IP version 6¶

In the late 1980s and early 1990s the growth of the Internet was causing several operational problems on routers. Many of these routers had a single CPU and up to 1 MByte of RAM to store their operating system, packet buffers and routing tables. Given the rate of allocation of IPv4 prefixes to companies and universities willing to join the Internet, the routing tables where growing very quickly and some feared that all IPv4 prefixes would quickly be allocated. In 1987, a study cited in RFC 1752, estimated that there would be 100,000 networks in the near future. In August 1990, estimates indicated that the class B space would be exhausted by March 1994. Two types of solution were developed to solve this problem. The first short term solution was the introduction of Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR). A second short term solution was the Network Address Translation (NAT) mechanism, defined in RFC 1631. NAT allowed multiple hosts to share a single public IPv4 address.

However, in parallel with these short-term solutions, which have allowed the IPv4 Internet to continue to be usable until now, the Internet Engineering Task Force started working on developing a replacement for IPv4. This work started with an open call for proposals, outlined in RFC 1550. Several groups responded to this call with proposals for a next generation Internet Protocol (IPng) :

The IETF decided to pursue the development of IPng based on the SIPP proposal. As IP version 5 was already used by the experimental ST-2 protocol defined in RFC 1819, the successor of IP version 4 is IP version 6. The initial IP version 6 defined in RFC 1752 was designed based on the following assumptions :

• IPv6 addresses are encoded as a 128 bits field

• The IPv6 header has a simple format that can easily be parsed by hardware devices

• A host should be able to configure its IPv6 address automatically

• Security must be part of IPv6

Note

When the work on IPng started, it was clear that 32 bits was too small to encode an IPng address and all proposals used longer addresses. However, there were many discussions about the most suitable address length. A first approach, proposed by SIPP in RFC 1710, was to use 64 bit addresses. A 64 bits address space was 4 billion times larger than the IPv4 address space and, furthermore, from an implementation perspective, 64 bit CPUs were being considered and 64 bit addresses would naturally fit inside their registers. Another approach was to use an existing address format. This was the TUBA proposal (RFC 1347) that reuses the ISO CLNP 20 bytes addresses. The 20 bytes addresses provided room for growth, but using ISO CLNP was not favored by the IETF partially due to political reasons, despite the fact that mature CLNP implementations were already available. 128 bits appeared to be a reasonable compromise at that time.

The experience of IPv4 revealed that the scalability of a network layer protocol heavily depends on its addressing architecture. The designers of IPv6 spent a lot of effort defining its addressing architecture RFC 3513. All IPv6 addresses are 128 bits wide. This implies that there are $$340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 (3.4 \times 10^{38})$$ different IPv6 addresses. As the surface of the Earth is about 510,072,000 $$km^2$$, this implies that there are about $$6.67 \times 10^{23}$$ IPv6 addresses per square meter on Earth. Compared to IPv4, which offers only 8 addresses per square kilometer, this is a significant improvement on paper.

Note

It is sometimes necessary to write IPv6 addresses in text format, e.g. when manually configuring addresses or for documentation purposes. The preferred format for writing IPv6 addresses is x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x, where the x ‘s are hexadecimal digits representing the eight 16-bit parts of the address. Here are a few examples of IPv6 addresses :

• abcd:ef01:2345:6789:abcd:ef01:2345:6789

• 2001:db8:0:0:8:800:200c:417a

• fe80:0:0:0:219:e3ff:fed7:1204

IPv6 addresses often contain a long sequence of bits set to 0. In this case, a compact notation has been defined. With this notation, :: is used to indicate one or more groups of 16 bits blocks containing only bits set to 0. For example,

• 2001:db8:0:0:8:800:200c:417a is represented as 2001:db8::8:800:200c:417a

• ff01:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 is represented as ff01::101

• 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 is represented as ::1

• 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 is represented as ::

An IPv6 prefix can be represented as address/length, where length is the length of the prefix in bits. For example, the three notations below correspond to the same IPv6 prefix :

• 2001:0db8:0000:cd30:0000:0000:0000:0000 / 60

• 2001:0db8::cd30:0:0:0:0 / 60

• 2001:0db8:0:cd30:: / 60

IPv6 supports unicast, multicast and anycast addresses. An IPv6 unicast address is used to identify one datalink-layer interface on a host. If a host has several datalink layer interfaces (e.g. an Ethernet interface and a WiFi interface), then it needs several IPv6 addresses. In general, an IPv6 unicast address is structured as shown in the figure below.

An IPv6 unicast address is composed of three parts :

1. A global routing prefix that is assigned to the Internet Service Provider that owns this block of addresses

2. A subnet identifier that identifies a customer of the ISP

3. An interface identifier that identifies a particular interface on a host

The subnet identifier plays a key role in the scalability of network layer addressing architecture. An important point to be defined in a network layer protocol is the allocation of the network layer addresses. A naive allocation scheme would be to provide an address to each host when the host is attached to the Internet on a first come first served basis. With this solution, a host in Belgium could have address 2001:db8::1 while another host located in Africa would use address 2001:db8::2. Unfortunately, this would force all routers on the Internet to maintain one route towards each host. In the network layer, scalability is often a function of the number of routes stored on the router. A network will usually work better if its routers store fewer routes and network administrators usually try to minimize the number of routes that are known by their routers. For this, they often divide their network prefix in smaller blocks. For example, consider a company with three campuses, a large one and two smaller ones. The network administrator would probably divide his block of addresses as follows :

• the bottom half is used for the large campus

• the top half is divided in two smaller blocks, one for each small campus

Inside each campus, the same division can be done, for example on a per building basis, starting from the buildings that host the largest number of nodes, e.g. the company datacenter. In each building, the same division can be done on a per floor basis, … The advantage of such a hierarchical allocation of the addresses is that the routers in the large campus only need one route to reach a router in the smaller campus. The routers in the large campus would know more routes about the buildings in their campus, but they do not need to know the details of the organization of each smaller campus.

To preserve the scalability of the routing system, it is important to minimize the number of routes that are stored on each router. A router cannot store and maintain one route for each of the almost 1 billion hosts that are connected to today’s Internet. Routers should only maintain routes towards blocks of addresses and not towards individual hosts. For this, hosts are grouped in subnets based on their location in the network. A typical subnet groups all the hosts that are part of the same enterprise. An enterprise network is usually composed of several LANs interconnected by routers. A small block of addresses from the Enterprise’s block is usually assigned to each LAN.

In today’s deployments, interface identifiers are always 64 bits wide. This implies that while there are $$2^{128}$$ different IPv6 addresses, they must be grouped in $$2^{64}$$ subnets. This could appear as a waste of resources, however using 64 bits for the host identifier allows IPv6 addresses to be auto-configured and also provides some benefits from a security point of view, as explained in section ICMPv6.

In practice, there are several types of IPv6 unicast address. Most of the IPv6 unicast addresses are allocated in blocks under the responsibility of IANA. The current IPv6 allocations are part of the 2000::/3 address block. Regional Internet Registries (RIR) such as RIPE in Europe, ARIN in North-America or AfriNIC in Africa have each received a block of IPv6 addresses that they sub-allocate to Internet Service Providers in their region. The ISPs then sub-allocate addresses to their customers.

When considering the allocation of IPv6 addresses, two types of address allocations are often distinguished. The RIRs allocate provider-independent (PI) addresses. PI addresses are usually allocated to Internet Service Providers and large companies that are connected to at least two different ISPs [CSP2009]. Once a PI address block has been allocated to a company, this company can use its address block with the provider of its choice and change its provider at will. Internet Service Providers allocate provider-aggregatable (PA) address blocks from their own PI address block to their customers. A company that is connected to only one ISP should only use PA addresses. The drawback of PA addresses is that when a company using a PA address block changes its provider, it needs to change all the addresses that it uses. This can be a nightmare from an operational perspective and many companies are lobbying to obtain PI address blocks even if they are small and connected to a single provider. The typical size of the IPv6 address blocks are :

• /32 for an Internet Service Provider

• /48 for a single company

• /56 for small user sites

• /64 for a single user (e.g. a home user connected via ADSL)

• /128 in the rare case when it is known that no more than one host will be attached

There is one difficulty with the utilization of these IPv6 prefixes. Consider Belnet, the Belgian research ISP that has been allocated the 2001:6a8::/32 prefix. Universities are connected to Belnet. UCLouvain uses prefix 2001:6a8:3080::/48 while the University of Liege uses 2001:6a8:2d80::/48. A commercial ISP uses prefix 2a02:2788::/32. Both Belnet and the commercial ISP are connected to the global Internet.

The Belnet network advertises prefix 2001:6a8::/32 that includes the prefixes from both UCLouvain and ULg. These two subnetworks can be easily reached from any internet connected host. After a few years, UCLouvain decides to increase the redundancy of its Internet connectivity and buys transit service from ISP1. A direct link between UCLouvain and the commercial ISP appears on the network and UCLouvain expects to receive packets from both Belnet and the commercial ISP.

Now, consider how a router inside alpha.com would reach a host in the UCLouvain network. This router has two routes towards 2001:6a8:3080::1. The first one, for prefix 2001:6a8:3080::/48 is via the direct link between the commercial ISP and UCLouvain. The second one, for prefix 2001:6a8::/32 is via the Internet and Belnet. Since RFC 1519 when a router knows several routes towards the same destination address, it must forward packets along the route having the longest prefix length. In the case of 2001:6a8:3080::1, this is the route 2001:6a8:3080::/48 that is used to forward the packet. This forwarding rule is called the longest prefix match or the more specific match. All IP routers implement this forwarding rule.

To understand the longest prefix match forwarding, consider the IPv6 routing below.

Destination                          Gateway
::1                                  ::1
2a02:2788:2c4:16f::/64               eth0
2001:6a8::/32                        fe80::aaaa:bbbb


With the longest match rule, the route ::/0 plays a particular role. As this route has a prefix length of 0 bits, it matches all destination addresses. This route is often called the default route.

• a packet with destination 2a02:2788:2c4:16f::1 received by router R is destined to a host on interface eth0 .

• a packet with destination 2001:6a8:3080::1234 matches three routes : ::/0, 2001:6a8::/32 and 2001:6a8:3080::/48. The packet is forwarded via gateway fe80::bad:cafe

• a packet with destination 2001:1890:123a::1:1e matches one route : ::/0. The packet is forwarded via fe80::dead:beef

• a packet with destination 2001:6a8:3880:40::2 matches two routes : 2001:6a8::/32 and ::/0. The packet is forwarded via fe80::aaaa:bbbb

The longest prefix match can be implemented by using different data structures. One possibility is to use a trie. Details on how to implement efficient packet forwarding algorithms may be found in [Varghese2005].

For the companies that want to use IPv6 without being connected to the IPv6 Internet, RFC 4193 defines the Unique Local Unicast (ULA) addresses (fc00::/7). These ULA addresses play a similar role as the private IPv4 addresses defined in RFC 1918. However, the size of the fc00::/7 address block allows ULA to be much more flexible than private IPv4 addresses.

Furthermore, the IETF has reserved some IPv6 addresses for a special usage. The two most important ones are :

• 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 (::1 in compact form) is the IPv6 loopback address. This is the address of a logical interface that is always up and running on IPv6 enabled hosts.

• 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 (:: in compact form) is the unspecified IPv6 address. This is the IPv6 address that a host can use as source address when trying to acquire an official address.

The last type of unicast IPv6 addresses are the Link Local Unicast addresses. These addresses are part of the fe80::/10 address block and are defined in RFC 4291. Each host can compute its own link local address by concatenating the fe80::/64 prefix with the 64 bits identifier of its interface. Link local addresses can be used when hosts that are attached to the same link (or local area network) need to exchange packets. They are used notably for address discovery and auto-configuration purposes. Their usage is restricted to each link and a router cannot forward a packet whose source or destination address is a link local address. Link local addresses have also been defined for IPv4 RFC 3927. However, the IPv4 link local addresses are only used when a host cannot obtain a regular IPv4 address, e.g. on an isolated LAN.

Note

All IPv6 hosts have several addresses

An important consequence of the IPv6 unicast addressing architecture and the utilization of link-local addresses is that each IPv6 host has several IPv6 addresses. This implies that all IPv6 stacks must be able to handle multiple IPv6 addresses.

The addresses described above are unicast addresses. These addresses are used to identify (interfaces on) hosts and routers. They can appear as source and destination addresses in the IPv6 packets. When a host sends a packet towards a unicast address, this packet is delivered by the network to its final destination. There are situations, such as when delivering video or television signal to a large number of receivers, where it is useful to have a network that can efficiently deliver the same packet to a large number of receivers. This is the multicast service. A multicast service can be provided in a LAN. In this case, a multicast address identifies a set of receivers and each frame sent towards this address is delivered to all receivers in the group. Multicast can also be used in a network containing routers and hosts. In this case, a multicast address identifies also a group of receivers and the network delivers efficiently each multicast packet to all members of the group. Consider for example the network below.

Assume that B and D are part of a multicast group. If A sends a multicast packet towards this group, then R1 will replicate the packet to forward it to R2 and R3. R2 would forward the packet towards B. R3 would forward the packet towards R4 that would deliver it to D.

Finally, RFC 4291 defines the structure of the IPv6 multicast addresses 1. This structure is depicted in the figure below.

The low order 112 bits of an IPv6 multicast address are the group’s identifier. The high order bits are used as a marker to distinguish multicast addresses from unicast addresses. Notably, the 4-bit Flags field indicates whether the address is temporary or permanent. Finally, the Scope field indicates the boundaries of the forwarding of packets destined to a particular address. A link-local scope indicates that a router should not forward a packet destined to such a multicast address. An organization local-scope indicates that a packet sent to such a multicast destination address should not leave the organization. Finally the global scope is intended for multicast groups spanning the global Internet.

Among these addresses, some are well known. For example, all hosts automatically belong to the ff02::1 multicast group while all routers automatically belong to the ff02::2 multicast group. A detailed discussion of IPv6 multicast is outside the scope of this chapter.

### IPv6 packet format¶

The IPv6 packet format was heavily inspired by the packet format proposed for the SIPP protocol in RFC 1710. The standard IPv6 header defined in RFC 2460 occupies 40 bytes and contains 8 different fields, as shown in the figure below.

Apart from the source and destination addresses, the IPv6 header contains the following fields :

• Version : a 4 bits field set to 6 and intended to allow IP to evolve in the future if needed

• Traffic class : this 8 bits field indicates the type of service expected by this packet and contains the CE and ECT flags that are used by Explicit Congestion Notification

• Flow Label : this field was initially intended to be used to tag packets belonging to the same flow. A recent document, RFC 6437 describes some possible usages of this field, but it is too early to tell whether it will be really used.

• Payload Length : this is the size of the packet payload in bytes. As the length is encoded as a 16 bits field, an IPv6 packet can contain up to 65535 bytes of payload.

• Next Header : this 8-bit field indicates the type 2 of header that follows the IPv6 header. It can be a transport layer header (e.g. 6 for TCP or 17 for UDP) or an IPv6 option.

• Hop Limit : this 8-bit field indicates the number of routers that can forward the packet. It is decremented by one by each router and prevents packets from looping forever inside the network.

It is interesting to note that there is no checksum inside the IPv6 header. This is mainly because all datalink layers and transport protocols include a checksum or a CRC to protect their frames/segments against transmission errors. Adding a checksum in the IPv6 header would have forced each router to recompute the checksum of all packets, with limited benefit in detecting errors. In practice, an IP checksum allows for catching errors that occur inside routers (e.g. due to memory corruption) before the packet reaches its destination. However, this benefit was found to be too small given the reliability of current memories and the cost of computing the checksum on each router 3.

When a host receives an IPv6 packet, it needs to determine which transport protocol (UDP, TCP, SCTP, …) needs to handle the payload of the packet. This is the first role of the Next header field. The IANA which manages the allocation of Internet resources and protocol parameters, maintains an official list of transport protocols 2. The following protocol numbers are reserved :

• TCP uses Next Header number 6

• UDP uses Next Header number 17

• SCTP uses Next Header number 132

For example, an IPv6 packet that contains an TCP segment would appear as shown in the figure below.

However, the Next header has broader usages than simply indicating the transport protocol which is responsible for the packet payload. An IPv6 packet can contain a chain of headers and the last one indicates the transport protocol that is responsible for the packet payload. Supporting a chain of headers is a clever design from an extensibility viewpoint. As we will see, this chain of headers has several usages.

RFC 2460 defines several types of IPv6 extension headers that could be added to an IPv6 packet :

• Hop-by-Hop Options header. This option is processed by routers and hosts.

• Destination Options header. This option is processed only by hosts.

• Routing header. This option is processed by some nodes.

• Fragment header. This option is processed only by hosts.

• Authentication header. This option is processed only by hosts.

• Encapsulating Security Payload. This option is processed only by hosts.

The last two headers are used to add security above IPv6 and implement IPSec. They are described in RFC 2402 and RFC 2406 and are outside the scope of this document.

The Hop-by-Hop Options header was designed to make IPv6 easily extensible. In theory, this option could be used to define new fields that were not foreseen when IPv6 was designed. It is intended to be processed by both routers and hosts. Deploying an extension to a network protocol can be difficult in practice since some nodes already support the extensions while others still use the old version and do not understand the extension. To deal with this issue, the IPv6 designers opted for a Type-Length-Value encoding of these IPv6 options. The Hop-by-Hop Options header is encoded as shown below.

In this optional header, the Next Header field is used to support the chain of headers. It indicates the type of the next header in the chain. IPv6 headers have different lengths. The Hdr Ext Len field indicates the total length of the option header in bytes. The Opt. Type field indicates the type of option. These types are encoded such that their high order bits specify how the header needs to be handled by nodes that do not recognize it. The following values are defined for the two high order bits :

• 00 : if a node does not recognize this header, it can be safely skipped and the processing continues with the subsequent header

• 01 : if a node does not recognize this header, the packet must be discarded

• 10 (resp. 11) : if a node does not recognize this header, it must return a control packet (ICMP, see later) back to the source (resp. except if the destination was a multicast address)

This encoding allows the designers of protocol extensions to specify whether the option must be supported by all nodes on a path or not. Still, deploying such an extension can be difficult in practice.

Two hop-by-hop options have been defined. RFC 2675 specifies the jumbogram that enables IPv6 to support packets containing a payload larger than 65535 bytes. These jumbo packets have their payload length set to 0 and the jumbogram option contains the packet length as a 32 bits field. Such packets can only be sent from a source to a destination if all the routers on the path support this option. However, as of this writing it does not seem that the jumbogram option has been implemented. The router alert option defined in RFC 2711 is the second example of a hop-by-hop option. The packets that contain this option should be processed in a special way by intermediate routers. This option is used for IP packets that carry Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) messages, but this is outside the scope of this book.

The Destinations Option header uses the same format as the Hop-by-Hop Options header. It has some usages, e.g. to support mobile nodes RFC 6275, but these are outside the scope of this document.

The Fragment Options header is more important. An important problem in the network layer is the ability to handle heterogeneous datalink layers. Most datalink layer technologies can only transmit and receive frames that are shorter than a given maximum frame size. Unfortunately, all datalink layer technologies use different maximum frames sizes.

Each datalink layer has its own characteristics and as indicated earlier, each datalink layer is characterized by a maximum frame size. From IP’s point of view, a datalink layer interface is characterized by its Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU). The MTU of an interface is the largest packet (including header) that it can send. The table below provides some common MTU sizes.

 Datalink layer MTU Ethernet 1500 bytes WiFi 2272 bytes ATM (AAL5) 9180 bytes 802.15.4 102 or 81 bytes Token Ring 4464 bytes FDDI 4352 bytes

Although IPv6 can send 64 KBytes long packets, few datalink layer technologies that are used today are able to send a 64 KBytes packet inside a frame. Furthermore, as illustrated in the figure below, another problem is that a host may send a packet that would be too large for one of the datalink layers used by the intermediate routers.

To solve these problems, IPv6 includes a packet fragmentation and reassembly mechanism. In IPv4, fragmentation was performed by both the hosts and the intermediate routers. However, experience with IPv4 has shown that fragmenting packets in routers was costly [KM1995]. For this reason, the developers of IPv6 have decided that routers would not fragment packets anymore. In IPv6, fragmentation is only performed by the source host. If a source has to send a packet which is larger than the MTU of the outgoing interface, the packet needs to be fragmented before being transmitted. In IPv6, each packet fragment is an IPv6 packet that includes the Fragmentation header. This header is included by the source in each packet fragment. The receiver uses them to reassemble the received fragments.

If a router receives a packet that is too long to be forwarded, the packet is dropped and the router returns an ICMPv6 message to inform the sender of the problem. The sender can then either fragment the packet or perform Path MTU discovery. In IPv6, packet fragmentation is performed only by the source by using IPv6 options.

In IPv6, fragmentation is performed exclusively by the source host and relies on the fragmentation header. This 64 bits header is composed of six fields :

• a Next Header field that indicates the type of the header that follows the fragmentation header

• two Reserved fields set to 0.

• the Fragment Offset is a 13-bit unsigned integer that contains the offset, in 8 bytes units, of the data following this header, relative to the start of the original packet.

• the More flag, which is set to 0 in the last fragment of a packet and to 1 in all other fragments.

• the 32-bit Identification field indicates to which original packet a fragment belongs. When a host sends fragmented packets, it should ensure that it does not reuse the same identification field for packets sent to the same destination during a period of MSL seconds. This is easier with the 32 bits identification used in the IPv6 fragmentation header, than with the 16 bits identification field of the IPv4 header.

Some IPv6 implementations send the fragments of a packet in increasing fragment offset order, starting from the first fragment. Others send the fragments in reverse order, starting from the last fragment. The latter solution can be advantageous for the host that needs to reassemble the fragments, as it can easily allocate the buffer required to reassemble all fragments of the packet upon reception of the last fragment. When a host receives the first fragment of an IPv6 packet, it cannot know a priori the length of the entire IPv6 packet.

The figure below provides an example of a fragmented IPv6 packet containing a UDP segment. The Next Header type reserved for the IPv6 fragmentation option is 44.

The following pseudo-code details the IPv6 fragmentation, assuming that the packet does not contain options.

# mtu : maximum size of the packet (including header) of outgoing link
# In Scapy-like notation (see https://github.com/secdev/scapy)
if p.len < mtu:
send(p)
else:
# packet is too large
# 40 refers to the size of the IPv6 header
maxpayload = 8 * int((mtu - 40) / 8)  # must be n times 8 bytes
# packet must be fragmented
pos = 0
id = globalCounter
globalCounter += 1
toSend = IPv6(dst=p.dst, src=p.src, plen=mtu,
hlim=p.hlim, nh=44)/IPv6ExtHdrFrament(
id=id, offset=p.offset + (pos/8), m=True,
else:
# The last fragment
hlim=p.hlim, nh=44)/IPv6ExtHdrFrament(
id=id, offset=p.offset + (pos/8), m=False,

forward(toSend)


In the above pseudocode, we maintain a single 32 bits counter that is incremented for each packet that needs to be fragmented. Other implementations to compute the packet identification are possible. RFC 2460 only requires that two fragmented packets that are sent within the MSL between the same pair of hosts have different identifications.

The fragments of an IPv6 packet may arrive at the destination in any order, as each fragment is forwarded independently in the network and may follow different paths. Furthermore, some fragments may be lost and never reach the destination.

The reassembly algorithm used by the destination host is roughly as follows. First, the destination can verify whether a received IPv6 packet is a fragment or not by checking whether it contains a fragment header. If so, all fragments with the some identification must be reassembled together. The reassembly algorithm relies on the Identification field of the received fragments to associate a fragment with the corresponding packet being reassembled. Furthermore, the Fragment Offset field indicates the position of the fragment payload in the original non-fragmented packet. Finally, the packet with the M flag reset allows the destination to determine the total length of the original non-fragmented packet.

Note that the reassembly algorithm must deal with the unreliability of the IP network. This implies that a fragment may be duplicated or a fragment may never reach the destination. The destination can easily detect fragment duplication thanks to the Fragment Offset. To deal with fragment losses, the reassembly algorithm must bind the time during which the fragments of a packet are stored in its buffer while the packet is being reassembled. This can be implemented by starting a timer when the first fragment of a packet is received. If the packet has not been reassembled upon expiration of the timer, all fragments are discarded and the packet is considered to be lost.

Note

Given the size of the IPv6 header, it can cause huge overhead on low bandwidth links, especially when small packets are exchanged such as for Voice over IP applications. In such environments, several techniques can be used to reduce the overhead. A first solution is to use data compression in the datalink layer to compress all the information exchanged [Thomborson1992]. These techniques are similar to the data compression algorithms used in tools such as compress(1) or gzip(1) RFC 1951. They compress streams of bits without taking advantage of the fact that these streams contain IP packets with a known structure. A second solution is to compress the IP and TCP header. These header compression techniques, such as the one defined in RFC 5795 take advantage of the redundancy found in successive packets from the same flow to significantly reduce the size of the protocol headers. Another solution is to define a compressed encoding of the IPv6 header that matches the capabilities of the underlying datalink layer RFC 4944.

The last type of IPv6 header extension is the Routing header. The type 0 routing header defined in RFC 2460 is an example of an IPv6 option that must be processed by some routers. This option is encoded as shown below.

The type 0 routing option was intended to allow a host to indicate a loose source route that should be followed by a packet by specifying the addresses of some of the routers that must forward this packet. Unfortunately, further work with this routing header, including an entertaining demonstration with scapy [BE2007] , revealed severe security problems with this routing header. For this reason, loose source routing with the type 0 routing header has been removed from the IPv6 specification RFC 5095.

## ICMP version 6¶

It is sometimes necessary for intermediate routers or the destination host to inform the sender of the packet of a problem that occurred while processing a packet. In the TCP/IP protocol suite, this reporting is done by the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). ICMPv6 is defined in RFC 4443. It is used both to report problems that occurred while processing an IPv6 packet, but also to distribute addresses.

ICMPv6 messages are carried inside IPv6 packets (the Next Header field for ICMPv6 is 58). Each ICMP message contains a 32 bits header with an 8 bits type field, a code field and a 16 bits checksum computed over the entire ICMPv6 message. The message body contains a copy of the IPv6 packet in error.

ICMPv6 specifies two classes of messages : error messages that indicate a problem in handling a packet and informational messages. Four types of error messages are defined in RFC 4443 :

• 1Destination Unreachable. Such an ICMPv6 message is sent when the destination address of a packet is unreachable. The code field of the ICMP header contains additional information about the type of unreachability. The following codes are specified in RFC 4443
• 0 : No route to destination. This indicates that the router that sent the ICMPv6 message did not have a route towards the packet’s destination

• 1 : Communication with destination administratively prohibited. This indicates that a firewall has refused to forward the packet towards its final destination.

• 2 : Beyond scope of source address. This message can be sent if the source is using link-local addresses to reach a global unicast address outside its subnet.

• 3 : Address unreachable. This message indicates that the packet reached the subnet of the destination, but the host that owns this destination address cannot be reached.

• 4 : Port unreachable. This message indicates that the IPv6 packet was received by the destination, but there was no application listening to the specified port.

• 2 : Packet Too Big. The router that was to send the ICMPv6 message received an IPv6 packet that is larger than the MTU of the outgoing link. The ICMPv6 message contains the MTU of this link in bytes. This allows the sending host to implement Path MTU discovery RFC 1981

• 3 : Time Exceeded. This error message can be sent either by a router or by a host. A router would set code to 0 to report the reception of a packet whose Hop Limit reached 0. A host would set code to 1 to report that it was unable to reassemble received IPv6 fragments.

• 4 : Parameter Problem. This ICMPv6 message is used to report either the reception of an IPv6 packet with an erroneous header field (code 0) or an unknown Next Header or IP option (codes 1 and 2). In this case, the message body contains the erroneous IPv6 packet and the first 32 bits of the message body contain a pointer to the error.

The Destination Unreachable ICMP error message is returned when a packet cannot be forwarded to its final destination. The first four ICMPv6 error messages (type 1, codes 0-3) are generated by routers while hosts may return code 4 when there is no application bound to the corresponding port number.

The Packet Too Big ICMP messages enable the source host to discover the MTU size that it can safely use to reach a given destination. To understand its operation, consider the (academic) scenario shown in the figure below. In this figure, the labels on each link represent the maximum packet size supported by this link.

If A sends a 1500 bytes packet, R1 will return an ICMPv6 error message indicating a maximum packet length of 1400 bytes. A would then fragment the packet before retransmitting it. The small fragment would go through, but the large fragment will be refused by R2 that would return an ICMPv6 error message. A can fragment again the packet and send it to the final destination as two fragments.

In practice, an IPv6 implementation does not store the transmitted packets to be able to retransmit them if needed. However, since TCP (and SCTP) buffer the segments that they transmit, a similar approach can be used in transport protocols to detect the largest MTU on a path towards a given destination. This technique is called PathMTU Discovery RFC 1981.

When a TCP segment is transported in an IP packet that is fragmented in the network, the loss of a single fragment forces TCP to retransmit the entire segment (and thus all the fragments). If TCP was able to send only packets that do not require fragmentation in the network, it could retransmit only the information that was lost in the network. In addition, IP reassembly causes several challenges at high speed as discussed in RFC 4963. Using IP fragmentation to allow UDP applications to exchange large messages raises several security issues [KPS2003].

ICMPv6 is used by TCP implementations to discover the largest MTU size that is allowed to reach a destination host without causing network fragmentation. A TCP implementation parses the Packets Too Big ICMP messages that it receives. These ICMP messages contain the MTU of the router’s outgoing link in their Data field. Upon reception of such an ICMP message, the source TCP implementation adjusts its Maximum Segment Size (MSS) so that the packets containing the segments that it sends can be forwarded by this router without requiring fragmentation.

Two types of informational ICMPv6 messages are defined in RFC 4443 : echo request and echo reply, which are used to test the reachability of a destination by using ping6(8). Each host is supposed 4 to reply with an ICMP Echo reply message when it receives an ICMP Echo request message. A sample usage of ping6(8) is shown below.

#ping6 www.ietf.org
PING6(56=40+8+8 bytes) 2001:6a8:3080:2:3403:bbf4:edae:afc3 --> 2001:1890:123a::1:1e
16 bytes from 2001:1890:123a::1:1e, icmp_seq=0 hlim=49 time=156.905 ms
16 bytes from 2001:1890:123a::1:1e, icmp_seq=1 hlim=49 time=155.618 ms
16 bytes from 2001:1890:123a::1:1e, icmp_seq=2 hlim=49 time=155.808 ms
16 bytes from 2001:1890:123a::1:1e, icmp_seq=3 hlim=49 time=155.325 ms
16 bytes from 2001:1890:123a::1:1e, icmp_seq=4 hlim=49 time=155.493 ms
16 bytes from 2001:1890:123a::1:1e, icmp_seq=5 hlim=49 time=155.801 ms
16 bytes from 2001:1890:123a::1:1e, icmp_seq=6 hlim=49 time=155.660 ms
16 bytes from 2001:1890:123a::1:1e, icmp_seq=7 hlim=49 time=155.869 ms
^C
--- www.ietf.org ping6 statistics ---
8 packets transmitted, 8 packets received, 0.0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max/std-dev = 155.325/155.810/156.905/0.447 ms


Another very useful debugging tool is traceroute6(8). The traceroute man page describes this tool as “print the route packets take to network host”. traceroute uses the Time exceeded ICMP messages to discover the intermediate routers on the path towards a destination. The principle behind traceroute is very simple. When a router receives an IP packet whose Hop Limit is set to 1 it is forced to return to the sending host a Time exceeded ICMP message containing the header and the first bytes of the discarded packet. To discover all routers on a network path, a simple solution is to first send a packet whose Hop Limit is set to 1, then a packet whose Hop Limit is set to 2, etc. A sample traceroute6 output is shown below.

#traceroute6 www.ietf.org
traceroute6 to www.ietf.org (2001:1890:1112:1::20) from 2001:6a8:3080:2:217:f2ff:fed6:65c0, 30 hops max, 12 byte packets
1  2001:6a8:3080:2::1  13.821 ms  0.301 ms  0.324 ms
2  2001:6a8:3000:8000::1  0.651 ms  0.51 ms  0.495 ms
3  10ge.cr2.bruvil.belnet.net  3.402 ms  3.34 ms  3.33 ms
4  10ge.cr2.brueve.belnet.net  3.668 ms 10ge.cr2.brueve.belnet.net  3.988 ms 10ge.cr2.brueve.belnet.net  3.699 ms
5  belnet.rt1.ams.nl.geant2.net  10.598 ms  7.214 ms  10.082 ms
6  so-7-0-0.rt2.cop.dk.geant2.net  20.19 ms  20.002 ms  20.064 ms
7  kbn-ipv6-b1.ipv6.telia.net  21.078 ms  20.868 ms  20.864 ms
8  s-ipv6-b1-link.ipv6.telia.net  31.312 ms  31.113 ms  31.411 ms
9  s-ipv6-b1-link.ipv6.telia.net  61.986 ms  61.988 ms  61.994 ms
10  2001:1890:61:8909::1  121.716 ms  121.779 ms  121.177 ms
11  2001:1890:61:9117::2  203.709 ms  203.305 ms  203.07 ms
12  mail.ietf.org  204.172 ms  203.755 ms  203.748 ms


Note

Rate limitation of ICMP messages

High-end hardware based routers use special purpose chips on their interfaces to forward IPv6 packets at line rate. These chips are optimized to process correct IP packets. They are not able to create ICMP messages at line rate. When such a chip receives an IP packet that triggers an ICMP message, it interrupts the main CPU of the router and the software running on this CPU processes the packet. This CPU is much slower than the hardware acceleration found on the interfaces [Gill2004]. It would be overloaded if it had to process IP packets at line rate and generate one ICMP message for each received packet. To protect this CPU, high-end routers limit the rate at which the hardware can interrupt the main CPU and thus the rate at which ICMP messages can be generated. This implies that not all erroneous IP packets cause the transmission of an ICMP message. The risk of overloading the main CPU of the router is also the reason why using hop-by-hop IPv6 options, including the router alert option is discouraged 5.

## The IPv6 subnet¶

Until now, we have focused our discussion on the utilization of IPv6 on point-to-point links. Although there are point-to-point links in the Internet, mainly between routers and sometimes hosts, most of the hosts are attached to datalink layer networks such as Ethernet LANs or WiFi networks. These datalink layer networks play an important role in today’s Internet and have heavily influenced the design of the operation of IPv6. To understand IPv6 and ICMPv6 completely, we first need to correctly understand the key principles behind these datalink layer technologies.

As explained earlier, devices attached to a Local Area Network can directly exchange frames among themselves. For this, each datalink layer interface on a device (host, router, …) attached to such a network is identified by a MAC address. Each datalink layer interface includes a unique hardwired MAC address. MAC addresses are allocated to manufacturers in blocks and interface is numbered with a unique address. Thanks to the global unicity of the MAC addresses, the datalink layer service can assume that two hosts attached to a LAN have different addresses. Most LANs provide an unreliable connectionless service and a datalink layer frame has a header containing :

• some multiplexing information to indicate the network layer protocol that is responsible for the payload of the frame

LANs also provide a broadcast and a multicast service. The broadcast service enables a device to send a single frame to all the devices attached to the same LAN. This is done by reserving a special broadcast MAC address (typically all bits of the address are set to one). To broadcast a frame, a device simply needs to send a frame whose destination is the broadcast address. All devices attached to the datalink network will receive the frame.